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French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar ; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India , the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War.

Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions.

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Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in , but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies. From , Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread.

Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston , Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre.


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In , colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in , attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy ; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor , so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the " Boston Tea Party ".

Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter , taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council.

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Additionally, t. The Navajo people are politically divided between two federally recognized tribes, the Navajo Nation and the Colorado River Indian Tribes. At more than , enrolled tribal members as of , the Navajo Nation is the second-largest federally recognized tribe in the U. The reservation straddles the Four Corners region and covers more than 27, square miles of land in Arizona and New Mexico ; the Navajo language is spoken throughout the region, most Navajo speak English.

The states with the largest Navajo populations are New Mexico. The language comprises mutually intelligible dialects; the Apache language is related to the Navajo language. Speakers of various other Athabaskan languages located in Canada may still comprehend the Navajo language despite the geographic and linguistic deviation of the languages. Some speak Plains Sign Talk itself. Archaeological and historical evidence suggests the Athabaskan ancestors of the Navajo and Apache entered the Southwest around CE; the Navajo oral tradition is said to retain references to this migration.

Until contact with the Pueblo and the Spanish peoples, the Navajo were hunters and gatherers; the tribe adopted crop-farming techniques from the Pueblo peoples, growing the traditional " Three Sisters " of corn and squash. After the Spanish colonists influenced the people, the Navajo began keeping and herding livestock—sheep and goats—as a main source of trade and food.

Meat became an essential component of the Navajo diet. Sheep became a form of currency and status symbols among the Navajo based on the overall quantity of herds a family maintained. In addition, women began to weave wool into blankets and clothing. Oral history indicates a long relationship with Pueblo people and a willingness to incorporate Puebloan ideas and linguistic variance into their culture. There were long-established trading practices between the groups.

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Spanish records from the midth century recount the Pueblo exchanging maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat and stone from Athabaskans traveling to the pueblos or living in their vicinity. In the 18th century, the Spanish reported the Navajo maintaining large herds of livestock and cultivating large crop areas. Western historians believe that the Spanish before referred to the Navajo as Apaches or Quechos.

Navahu comes from the Tewa language.

The Spanish and Hopi continued to trade with each other and formed a loose alliance to fight Apache and Commanche bands for the next twenty years. During this time there were minor raids by Navajo bands and Spanish citizens against each other. Twenty Navajo chiefs asked for peace.

In and the Navajo and Spanish mounted major expeditions against each other's settlements. In May another peace was established. Similar patterns of peace-making and trading among the Navajo , Apache and Hopi continued until the arrival of Americans in ; the Navajo encountered the United States Army in , when General Stephen W. On November 21, , following an invitation from a small party of American soldiers under the command of Captain John Reid , who journeyed deep into Navajo country and contacted him and other Navajo negotiated a treaty of peace with Colonel Alexander Doniphan at Bear Springs, Ojo del Oso.

This agreement by some New Mexicans. The treaty acknowledged the transfer of jurisdiction from the United Mexican States to the United States ; the treaty allowed forts and trading posts to be built on Navajo land.

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The United States, on its part, promised "such donations such other liberal and humane measures, as may deem meet and proper. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects; the modern Sioux consist of two major divisions based on language divisions: the Dakota and Lakota. They are considered to be the middle Sioux, have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota ; the actual Nakota are the Stoney of Western Canada and Montana.

The Lakota called Teton, are the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture. Each fire is a symbol of an oyate. In any of the dialects, Lakota or Dakota translates to mean "friend" or "ally" referring to the alliances between the bands; the name "Sioux" was adopted in English by the s from French. It is abbreviated from Nadouessioux, first attested by Jean Nicolet in ; the name is sometimes said to be derived from an Ojibwe exonym for the Sioux meaning "little snakes". This refers to the style of cooking the Sioux used in the past.

Sioux has three similar dialects: Western Dakota and Eastern Dakota. The term Dakota has been applied by anthropologists and governmental departments to refer to all Sioux groups, resulting in names such as Teton Dakota, Santee Dakota, etc; this was because of the misrepresented translation of the Ottawa word from which Sioux is derived.

The Sioux are divided into three ethnic groups, the larger of which are divided into sub-groups, further branched into bands; the earliest known European record of the Sioux identified them in Minnesota and Wisconsin. After the introduction of the horse in the early 18th century, the Sioux dominated larger areas of land—from present day Central Canada to the Platte River , from Minnesota to the Yellowstone River , including the Powder River country ; the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and communities in North America : in the Dakotas, Minnesota and Montana in the United States.

Today, many Sioux live outside their reservations. Some came up from area of South Carolina ; the Santee River was named after them, some of their ancestors' ancient earthwork mounds have survived along the portion of the dammed-up river that forms Lake Marion. In the past, they were a Woodland people who thrived on hunting and farming. Migrations of Ojibwe from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed the Dakota further into Minnesota and west and southward; the US gave the name " Dakota Territory ".

Howe left a garrison of some 3, troops in Philadelphia, while moving the bulk of his force to Germantown an outlying community to the city. Learning of the division, Washington determined to engage the British, his plan called for four separate columns to converge on the British position at Germantown. The two flanking columns were composed of 3, militia , while the centre-left , under Nathanael Greene , the centre-right under John Sullivan , the reserve under Lord Stirling were made up of regular troops.

The ambition behind the plan was to surprise and destroy the British force, much in the same way as Washington had surprised and decisively defeated the Hessians at Trenton. In Germantown, Howe had the 40th Foot spread across his front as pickets. In the main camp, Wilhelm von Knyphausen commanded the British left, while Howe himself led the British right. A heavy fog caused a great deal of confusion among the approaching Americans. After a sharp contest, Sullivan's column routed the British pickets.

Unseen in the fog, around men of the British 40th Foot barricaded the Chew Mansion; when the American reserve moved forward, Washington made the erroneous decision to launch repeated assaults on the position, all of which failed with heavy casualties. Penetrating several hundred yards beyond the mansion, Sullivan's wing became dispirited, running low on ammunition and hearing cannon fire behind them; as they withdrew, Anthony Wayne's division collided with part of Greene's late-arriving wing in the fog.

Mistaking each other for the enemy, they opened fire, both units retreated. Meanwhile, Greene's left-centre column threw back the British right.

With Sullivan's column repulsed, the British left outflanked Greene's column; the two militia columns had only succeeded in diverting the attention of the British, had made no progress before they withdrew. Despite the defeat, France impressed by the American success at Saratoga, decided to lend greater aid to the Americans. Howe did not vigorously pursue the defeated Americans, instead turning his attention to clearing the Delaware River of obstacles at Red Bank and Fort Mifflin.

After unsuccessfully attempting to draw Washington into combat at White Marsh , Howe withdrew to Philadelphia. Washington, his army intact, withdrew to Valley Forge , where he re-trained his forces; the Philadelphia campaign had begun badly for the Americans. After inflicting a stinging defeat on Anthony Wayne's division at Paoli on September 20, the British army marched north to Valley Forge west to the French Creek bridge.

The American army defended all these Schuylkill crossings, plus one farther downstream at Swede's Ford near Norristown.

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On September 22, a small British force under Sir William Erskine feinted north and another force mounted a demonstration at Gordon's Ford. Howe's moves convinced Washington that the Britisher was trying to seize his supply base at Reading and turn his right flank. Washington moved north, they crossed the Schuylkill at Fatland and Richardson's Fords without opposition, after a brief rest, headed downstream toward Swede's Ford where the American militia abandoned three cannons. Charles Cornwallis subsequently seized Philadelphia for the British on September 26, dealing a blow to the revolutionary cause.

Howe left a garrison of 3, men to defend the city, moving the bulk of his force north, some 9, men, to the outlying community of Germantown.


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With the campaigning season drawing to a close, Howe determined to locate and destroy the main American army. Howe established his headquarters at the former country home of James Logan. Despite having suffered successive defeats, Washington saw an opportunity to entrap and decisively defeat the divided British army, he resolved to attack the Germantown garrison, as the last effort of the year before entering winter quarters. His plan called for a ambitious assault.

Washington's hope was that the British would be surprised and overwhelmed much how the Hessians were at Trenton.

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